Despite the Sci-Fi name, quantum dots or QDs are pretty simple. At the most basic level, quantum dots are tiny nano crystals, only a few nano-meters in size, that can be made from various chemicals. The crystals are tuned to filter light to a specific wavelength based on the size of the crystal. When exposed to light, the crystals excite and emit light at the specified wavelength, and if prepared to do so, at a higher brightness than the input light.
Quantum dots are classified as semiconductors and do rely on quantum mechanics to function, however they can be produced cheaply with some studies showing they can be made on a household stove top with the right blend of department store chemicals and table sugar. This accessibility matched with functionality are key in giving this project accuracy in the wavelengths of light and efficiency in energy usage.